This section summarises the values related to toxicity to soil microorganisms from all registered dossiers for the substance. From all the swine diets, the diet of piglets is by far the most complex, not only because of the number of ingredients, but also the number of parameters, which are not always very clear. Pow provides substance information on the partition coefficient type Pow at a temperature measured in °C and acidity in pH. InChI is an abbreviated name for IUPAC International Chemical Identifier, a chemical identifier developed and supported by the InChI Trust. Processable data for study results is prioritised by test species (see list below) and subsequently further prioritised by the dose descriptor. Therefore the quality of these names may be variable. If more than one numerical result is available per endpoint, the range of results (min-max) will be presented (RANGE method). Dissociating Properties provides substance information by picklist values: Dissociation Constant provides numerical substance information on the substance’s dissociation constant values at a temperature measured in °C. Pour density provides substance information on the pour density in grams per millilitre at a temperature measured in °C. The IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming chemical substances, both organic and inorganic. Aliquam nec erat semper, suscipit libero et, bibendum mauris. EC10 / LC10 or NOEC for microorganisms provides substance information on the substance’s effect concentration/lethal concentration for 10% of the tested microorganisms or the no observed effect concentration for microorganisms. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the detailed information from the registration dossiers. Inhalation exposure provides information on the substance’s hazard assessment conclusions regarding inhalation exposure. The CLP regulatory processes identified for the Brief Profile are: The BPR (528/2012) entered into force on 1 September 2013. This section displays the values related to acute toxicity from all registered dossiers for the substance. Applicant’s summary and conclusion – Interpretation of results. The cis isomer is the less stable one of the two; the difference in heat of combustion is 22. The CLP Regulation uses the UN Global Harmonised System (GHS) and European Union Specific Hazard Statements (EUH). Therefore, data has to fit the format and aggregation logic that is used for the Brief Profile. Due to the quantity of information and the number of chemicals, the Brief Profile is automatically generated based on the information available and is not manually verified. The acidity of the first proton is greater for maleic acid, the second proton is not very acidic, fumaric acid has the more acidic second proton. The ‘Properties of concern’ section shows ECHA-assigned graphical indicators for certain substance properties that are regarded as critical for human health and/or the environment based on the information provided to the Agency. EC10 / LC10 or NOEC for marine water plants provides substance information on the substance’s effect concentration/lethal concentration for 10% of the tested marine water plants or the no observed effect concentration for marine water plants. Under specific conditions, a registrant can claim confidentiality of their identity. This section provides information on the derived no- or minimal effect level (DN(M)EL), the level of exposure above which a human should not be exposed to a substance. The regulation aims to protect human health and the environment by banning or severely restricting the production and use of persistent organic pollutants in the European Union. Fumarate is converted by fumarase to malate. COD provides substance information on the substance’s COD values displayed in O2 (milli)gram per gram test material. Linear Formula HOOCCH=CHCOOH . PubChem Substance ID 24900967. The Brief Profile summarises the non-confidential data on substances as it is held in the databases of the European Chemical Agency (ECHA), including data provided by third parties. The percentage is based on the count of values provided. If there is more than one result with the same value, data is further prioritised by test type and endpoint conclusion. Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates). If such information is available in ECHA’s database and is it not claimed confidential, the molecular formula and molecular structure will be displayed here. Data is generally displayed in milligrams per kilogram, per bodyweight per day. The Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) value is the concentration of a substance below which adverse effects in the environment are not expected to occur. Values are generally displayed in milligram per kilo soil (dry weight). Displayed are the RANGES of min – max of the PRIORITISED value(s) within the five highest priority groupings of provided data. Oral route provides substance information on the substance’s acute toxicity via the oral route. Other industrial uses of fumaric acid are in jet printing inks, plastics surface coating and paper sizing, and as an intermediate in the preparation of unsaturated polyester and alkyd resins. Displayed are the RANGES of min – max of the PRIORITISED value(s) within the five highest priority groupings of provided data. Note: Registrants can also select ‘other’ as the type of density. Data is generally standardised and displayed in milligram per kilo soil (dry weight). Water solubility provides substance information on the substance’s solubility in water in grams per litre at a temperature measured in °C. The quality of ingredients has a big impact on the performance of piglets. The Agency thus cannot guarantee the correctness of the information displayed. Hazard to aquatic organisms provides information on the substance’s hazard assessment conclusion regarding aquatic organisms. Study data not processed for brief profile. Flash point provides substance information on the substance’s flash point at a temperature measured in °C at a pressure  measured in Pascal. The Brief Profile is produced based on data in ECHA’s databases and maintained by the Agency, and therefore the Brief Profile as a dissemination tool falls under ECHA’s responsibility. Brief Profiles are updated regularly and new information is added when available. BOD5 provides substance information on the substance’s BOD5 values displayed in O2 (milli)gram per gram test material. Harmonised C&L– indicates if a European Union harmonised classifications and labelling has been assigned to the substance according to Annex VI to CLP and subsequent ATPs. Note: Registrants can also select ‘BMD’, ‘BMC’, ‘dose level’ and ‘conc. If the substance is classified under more than one CLH entry (e.g. If impurities and/or additives have been identified, an informative sentence is displayed below the graphic. Short-term EC50 or LC50 for soil dwelling arthropods provides substance information on the substance’s effect concentration or lethal concentration (short term) for 50% of the soil dwelling arthropods in the test, generally displayed in milligram per kilo soil (dry weight). Values are generally displayed in milligram per litre. The dark blue bar illustrates the percentage of matching substance classifications provided by manufacturers and importers in a REACH registration dossier. Remove contact lenses if present and easy to do – continue rinsing. Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. organic acids – sorted by formula This section displays the values related to immunotoxicity from all registered dossiers for the substance. PBT properties are derived from REACH registered substances dossiers. This section provides information on suppliers, importers or manufacturers of a substance (active and inactive) that have to register their substance under REACH. Long-term EC10 or LC10 or NOEC for terrestrial plants provides substance information on the substance’s effect concentration or lethal concentration (long term) for 10% of the terrestrial plants in the test, or the no observed effect concentration for terrestrial plants. Note that this does not mean that they are properly structured names according to the IUPAC nomenclature. BOD5*100/ThOD provides substance information on the substance’s BOD5*100/ThOD values displayed in O2 (milli)gram per gram test material. Surface tension provides substance information on the surface tension in (milli)Newton per metre in a concentration in (milli)gram per metre and at a temperature measured in °C. Tap density provides substance information on the bulk density per grams per millilitre at a temperature measured in °C. Processable data is prioritised by the toxicity descriptor type (see list below) and subsequently further prioritised by duration (longer prioritised over shorter). Please see the registered dossiers for substance information for the following endpoints: The ’Substance identity’ section links substance identification information from all databases that are maintained by ECHA. Both these compounds have two carboxylic acid groups per molecule. Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here. [, Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. The availability of additional data beyond the five results displayed is indicated by (…). This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. PNEC sediment, data displayed in milligram per kilo sediment (dry weight). More about CAS and the CAS registry can be found here. Data from all dossiers registered and the Classifications and Labelling Inventory (C&L) for the same substance are used to generate the Brief Profile. Dermal route provides substance information on the substance’s acute toxicity via the dermal route. These acids experience two-step dissociation in aqueous solutions.They have the same structural formula but different spatial configurations. ThOD provides substance information on the substance’s ThOD values displayed in O2 (milli)gram per gram test material. Values are generally displayed in milligram per litre. Degradation rate constant (OH Radicals) provides substance information on the substance’s degradation rate constant with OH Radicals as a reaction type in cm3molecule-1s-1, cm3molecule-1d-1, m3molecule-1s-1 or m3molecule-1d-1. Biodegradation in water - screening tests, Biodegradation in water & sediment - simulation tests. Registrants can register their substance’s oxidising properties as: Note: Registrants can also select ‘other’ as the oxidising value for their substance. ECHA has no public registered data on the use of this substance in activities or processes at the workplace. Readily biodegradable but failing the 10-day window. The information provided in the free-text fields is not published in the Brief Profiles. For this endpoint registrants do not provide study result data. Note: Registrants can also select ‘BMD’, ‘BMC’, ‘dose level’ and ‘conc. Thirdly the display of data is prioritised by units. According to a classification scheme(2), this estimated Koc value suggests that fumaric acid is expected to have very high mobility in soil. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment). Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), for thermoplastic manufacture and as processing aid. This section summarises the values related to toxicity to mammals (other above-ground organisms) from all registered dossiers for the substance. If a threshold is derived, the type of hazard assessment conclusion is displayed and the registered threshold is reported in (nano/micro/milli)gram per cubic metre. This section summarises the values related to short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates from all registered dossiers for the substance. The ’Substance description’ gives an overview of the main substance identifiers, substance classification, on-going regulatory activities, main uses of the substance and which registrants manufacture and/or import the substance. Fumaric acid is used for the industrial preparation of l-malic acid catalyzed by the enzyme fumarase (see ‘Malic acid’) and l-aspartic acid, a component of aspartame, by the enzyme aspartase. Registration dossier . Also, if the registrant selects the ‘mg/100 g solvent’; ‘g/kg solvent’; ‘ppb’; ‘vol%’ and ‘other’ as a unit of measure, the data provided will not be processed for the Brief Profile. 1.5), Extremely insensitive which do not have a mass explosion hazard (Div. If more than one picklist value is available per endpoint, results are displayed as concatenated distinct values, ordered by most to least commonly provided, with the % of provided values appended. This substance is used in the following areas: scientific research and development, building & construction work and agriculture, forestry and fishing. Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), for thermoplastic manufacture, of substances in closed systems with minimal release and in the production of articles. To have more information on impurities relevant to classification you can consult the C&L Inventory entry for the substance, or the disseminated registration dossier. EC10 / LC10 or NOEC for marine water invertebrates provides substance information on the substance’s effect concentration/lethal concentration for 10% of the tested marine water invertebrates or the no observed effect concentration for marine water invertebrates. the level of agreement, in substance classification between the REACH registrants (dark blue bar) and CLP notifiers (light blue bar), as well as between the notified classifications and the approved harmonised classification. Organic acids are substances widely distributed in nature: in plant and animal tissue constituents. This substance is used in the following products: polymers, adhesives and sealants, coating products, inks and toners and pharmaceuticals. By summarising the endpoint study data, ECHA aims to make this information accessible in a user-friendly way in line with the Agency’s goals and standards. Displayed is the most conservative of the prioritised value(s). Please note that the information provided in the free-text fields is not published in the brief profiles. More detailed information is available in the dossiers. According to the harmonised classification and labelling (CLP00) approved by the European Union, this substance causes serious eye irritation. Displayed are the RANGES of min – max of the PRIORITISED value(s) within the five highest priority groupings of provided data. For this endpoint registrants do not provide summary data. level’ as the dose descriptor. More information on processable studies and data-waiving is available in the section help of the ‘Scientific properties’. Note: If the measurement condition (percentage of organic carbon) is not provided by the registrant for adsorption coefficient Kd, the data provided is not processed for the Brief Profile. Biodegradation in water provides information on the substance’s biodegradation properties in water and can be registered by the registrants by one or more of the following picklist options: This section summarises the values related to the simulation tests for biodegradation in water and sediments from all registered dossiers for the substance. REACH and/or CLP notifiers may classify a substance differently based on different studies or the way they access the data. See ‘Data for workers – Inhalation exposure’, with the following additional hazard assessment conclusion in the case of short term: The registered threshold is generally displayed in milligrams per kilogram per bodyweight per day. Hazard for predators provides information on the substance’s hazard assessment conclusion related to predators/secondary poisoning. Weight Average: 116.0722 Monoisotopic: 116.010958616 Chemical Formula C 4 H 4 O 4 Synonyms (2E)-2-butenedioic acid (E)-2-butenedioic acid; Fumaricum acidum